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Toy buketi: tarix, ənənə, əlamətlər

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İlk baxışdan toyun ən vacib atributlarından olan “toy buketi” – gül dəstəsi bizə yeni görsənsə də, bu ənənənin kökü çox qədimə gedib çıxır.

Belə hesab edilir ki,  toy zamanı gəlinin əlində gül dəstəsi tutması adətinin kökü eramızdan əvvələ gedir. İnsanlar həmişə gül dəstəsində nəsə sehrli qüvvənin olduğuna inanırdılar. Bu səbəbdən də nikah və toy mərasimlərində gəlinin əlində gül, boynunda çiçək və xüsusi otlardan hörülmüş çələngin olması vacib hesab edilirdi. Qədimdə yunanlar, romalılar və keltlər belə hesab edirdilər ki, əgər ailə quran təzə gəlinin əlində və ya boynunda gül çələngi olarsa, bu çələng onu bəd nəzərlərdən, natəmiz qüvvələrdən qoruyar.

Orta əsrlərdə Avropada təzə gəlinə bütün günü boynunda soğan və sarımsaqdan hörülmüş çələng gəzdirməyi məsləhət görürdülər. O zamanlar avropalılar sarımsaq və soğanın kəskin qoxusunun günahsız, zərif gəlini bədxah ruhlardan qoruduğunu hesab edərdilər. Yunanıstanda ərə gedən qızlar boyunbağılardan əlavə, saçlarına da lent əvəzinə sarmaşıqdan hörülmüş çələng də taxırdılar. Bu əbədi məhəbbəti simvolizə edirdi. İspaniyada isə toyu sitrus ağaclarının budağı olmadan təsəvvür etmək mümkün deyildi, deyilənə görə, sitrus budağı ailə quran gənclərə uzun və xoşbəxt həyat gətirərdi.

 Əslində isə nikah və ya toy zamanı gəlinin əlində gül buketi tutması XIX əsrdən bəri vacib atributa çevrilmişdir. Belə ki, XIX əsrdə İngiltərədə kraliça Viktoriya və şahzadə Albert nikahlandığı zaman gəlinin əlinə canlı güllərdən düzəldilmiş buket verilir. Bununla bu ənənə sürətlə bütün Avropaya yayılır, nikah və toy zamanı gəlinin əlində canlı güllərdən düzəlmiş bir buketin olması vacib bir atributa çevrilir. Gəlinin əlində olan güllərin hər biri bir məna kəsb edirdi: biri – məhəbbət, biri – ehtiras, biri – zəriflik, biri – sədaqət, biri – bağlılıq və s.

 Gəlinin çiyni üzərindən rəfiqələrinə nəsə atması orta əsrlər xronikalarında da xatırlanır. Sözsüz ki, o zamanlar həmin əşyanı tutan rəfiqənin o il ərzində ərə getməsindən söhbət gedə bilməzdi. O zamanlar gəlinin rəfiqələrinə atdığı əşya sadəcə bir xoşbəxtlik talismanı hesab edilirdi, deyilənə görə, əşya onu tutan adama xoşbəxtlik gətirirdi.

 Bəzən gəlin rəfiqələrinə bəzək əşyalarından birini və ya donuna bağlanmış  lent də atırdı. Onu tutan qızı, guya qarşıda böyük bir qarşılıqlı məhəbbət gözləyirdi. Amma bunun nə vaxt olacağı haqqında söhbət belə getməzdi. Bəzi hallarda isə toy və ya nigah şənliyi başa çatandan sonra rəfiqələri gəlinin donunu, elə onun əynindəcə paramparça edirdilər. Rəfiqələri gəlinin donunu paramparça etməsinlər deyə,  fransız qızlar donlarına nazik sapla çoxlu küllər tikitdilər ki, onu da qoparmaq çox asan olurdu və don sapasağ qalırdı.

 Avropanın bir çox ölkələrində evlənənlər hələ ərə getməmiş qızlara qızıl bəzək əşyaları: boyunbağı, sırğa, muncuq atardılar. İsrafçılığı sevməyən fransızlar qiymətli əşyaların atılmasına qarşı çıxaraq, ancaq buketin atılmasını münasib bildilər.

 XX əsin əvvəllərində gəlinin əlində olduqca uzun saplaqlı güllər tutması dəb halını almışdı. Bu uzun saplaqlı gülləri çox yaraşıqlı bantlarla bağlayırdılar. Bizim müasir dövrümüzdə gəlinin rəfiqələrinə atdığı butet növü “budermeyer”  (bu buket növü ilk dəfə XIX əsrdə Almaniyada bağlanmışdır) adlanır. Bu cür buket kiçik saplaqlı güllərin kürə şəklində bir-birinə sıx bağlanmış formasıdır ki, bu da gəlinin buketi əlində rahat tutması və çox asanlıqla atması üçün nəzərdə tutulmuşdur.

 Zaman keçdikcə yuxarıda qeyd etdiyimiz adət-ənənələr dəyişikliklərə uğramış, yalnız tək “buket atmaq” ənənəsi günümüzə  gəlib çatmışdır.

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