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Niyə Fransanın simvolu xoruzdur?

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Bir çox ölkələrin simvolu şir, canavar, ayı, fil, qartal olduğu halda, Fransanın simvolunun xoruz olması sözsüz ki, bir çoxlarına qəribə görünə bilər.

Qadına olan münasibətdə fransızlarla xoruzlarda olan çılğınlıq,cəsurluq, nəzakətlilik, qayğıkeşlik kimi xüsusiyyətlər oxşarlıq təşkil edir.

 Qall xoruzu (məhz, bu cins “qızılı rəngli qall xoruzları” ) Fransanın simvolu seçilmişdir. Belə baxanda xoruz heç də müasir Fransanın dövlət simvolu hesab edilmir. Bu simvola ilk dəfə I Dünya Müharibəsində həlak olmuş fransız əsgərlərinin qəbirüstü daşlarında rast gəlinmişdir.

 Amma qəbirüstü daşlarda həkk olunmuş xoruzu, kilsələrin qüllələrində milə taxılmış xoruzla qarışdırmaq lazım deyil. Kilsə qüllələrindəki xoruz simvolu heç də milli simvol yox, sadəcə insan zəifliyinin simvoludur. İncildə qeyd edilənlərə əsaslanaraq, Müqəddəs Pyotr xoruz üç dəfə banlayan zaman üç dəfə İsa Məsihdən imtina etmişdir.

 Qədim Roma tarixçisi Qay Svetoniy özünün “12 sezarın həyatı” əsərində yazmışdır ki, latınca “gallus mallus ortinigus” – “qall” və “xoruz” mənasındadır. Fransa ərazisi müxtəlif qəbilələr tərəfindən zəbt edilənədək bu ərazilərdə “qall” adlı qəbilələr yaşayırmış.

 Fransa taxtının düşmənləri orta əsrlərin əvvəllərində (XII) fransız əyanlarını, əsasən də Fransa kralı Filipp II Avqustu al-əlvan rənglərlə bəzədilmiş xoruza bənzədirdilər. Amma fransızlar bu bənzətməni təhqir kimi deyil, kompliment kimi qəbul edirdilər. Belə ki, fransızlar xoruzu məğrur, yaraşıqlı bir görünüşə malik quş hesab edirdilər.

 Orta əsrlər alleqoriyasında xoruz daha yaxşı təsvir olunmuşdur. Məhz İntibah dövründə xoruzu fransızların milli simvolu kimi təqdim eləməyə başladılar. Balua və Burbonlar sülaləsinin monarxiya üsulu-idarəsi zamanı xoruz ölkənin emblemi kimi dəmir pullar üzərində həkk olunmağa başladı. Bu simvol o zamanın milli ideya ierarxiyasında elə də yüksək pillədə durmurdu. Bu Versal və Luvr ekspozisiyalarında daha aydın təsvir olunmuşdur.

 Xoruz təsviri daha çox 1789-cu ildən, birinci fransız inqilabından sonra peyda olmağa başladı. Belə ki, həmin vaxtlar binaların fasadlarında, dəmir pulların üzərində, friqiy kolpaqlarında (inqilabçıların azadlıq simvolu), Fransa Respublikasının ilk konsulunun möhüründə, (1779-cu ildən xoruz, I Napoleon Bonapartın titullarından biri olmuşdur), alleqorik şəkillərdə, hökmdarların əsaları üzərində“qardaşlıq” anlamında xoruz təsvir olunurdu.

 Napoleon Bonapart daha sonralar xoruzu qartalla əvəz etdi. Bonapart Fransa kimi qüdrətli bir dövlətin simvolunun xoruz olmasını artıq yararsız hesab edirdi.

 Xoruz obrazı digər fransız inqilabından sonra (1830-cu il) yenidən məşhurlaşdı. İyul monarxiyasının sülalə simvolunu möhkəmləndirmək məqsədilə “liliya gülü” təsvirini xoruzla əvəz etdilər. Hersoq Orleanski – Lui Filipp de Burbon adlı Fransanın sonuncu monarxı – xoruzun imicini bərpa elədi. O, Fransa ordusunda hərbi bayraqlarda və hərbi formaların düymələrində  xoruz təsvirlərinin verilməsi əmrini  imzalamışdı.

 İkinci Fransa imperiyasının süqutundan sonra Üçüncü Fransa Respublikası bu günədək öz populyarlığını itirməyən “qall xoruzu”nun imicini daha da möhkəmlətdi. Hal-hazırda Fransanın milli idman yığmalarının geyim formalarının üzərində xoruz təsvir olunmuşdur.

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