24 Mart

İlk Türk hökmdarı - Teoman

Bu məqaləni qiymətləndir
(2 səs)

Türk tarixinə nəzər saldıqda aydın görmək olar ki, İlk Türk hükümdarı Teoman olub.

 Teoman (e.ə. III əsr) Hun dövlətinin qurucusudur.

 E.ə. III əsrərəfələrində yaşayan Teoman ilk böyük Hun hökmdarıdır. İlk dövrlərdə Türk hökmdarlarına "Yabgu" da deyilirdi, bu görə bəzən "Teoman Yabgu" və ya "Tuman Yabgu" da deyilirdi. Fərqli Türk boyları arasında birliyi təmin edərək, mərkəzi bir idarə qurmuş və beləcə e.ə. 220-ci ildə ilk Hun xaqanı olaraq iş başına keçmişdir. Türk boyları o zamana qədər ən yaxınlıqdakı Çin İmperatorluğuna bir çox axın reallaşdırmışdı, hər nə qədər bu axınlar Çinlilər üçün təhdid kimi görünsə də, Türk boyları heç bir zaman birlikdə hərəkət etmədikləri üçün böyük bir Hun axını olmamışdı. Teoman boyları birləşdirib Hun Dövlətini qurunca bu ən başda Çin olmaq üzrə o dövrdə Orta Asiyadakı bir çox fərqli qrupu və birliyi qorxutdu. Hücumlar zamanı Hunlar Çindən daha əhəmiyyətli torpaqlar ələ keçirmişdi.

 Teomanın böyük oğlu olan Mete onun vəliəhdi sayılırdı. Amma Teoman digər arvadına olan bağlılığı üzündən Metenin yerinə bu arvadından olan oğlunu vəliəhd etmək istəyirdi. Mete xaqanlığı verməmək üçün müxtəlif tədbirlər gördü və Teoman isə digər oğlunu taxta çıxarmaq üçün əlindən gələni edirdi. Bütün bunlar Metenin ondan nifrət etməsinə səbəb oldu və Mete taxtı atasından almaq və atası ilə yoldaşından qisas almaq üçün bir ordu topladı. Mete 10,000 nəfərlik ordusu ilə atasının üstünə getdi, Teomanı, Teomanın yoldaşını və bu həyat yoldaşından olan oğlunu öldürdü (e.ə. 209). Beləcə Teomandan sonrakı böyük Türk xaqanı Mete oldu.

 Teomanın hökmdarlığı 11 il davam etmişdir (e.ə. 220 - e.ə. 209).

 Çin qaynağına görə, Teoman digər oğlunu taxta keçirmək məqsədiylə Meteni Yüeçjilere (Orta Asiya xalqı) girov olaraq göndərir. Daha sonra da Yüeçjiler üzərinə gedər. Bu vəziyyətdə Yüeçjiler Meteni öldürmək istəyirlər ancaq Mete at taparaq onların əlindən qaçmağı bacarır və ölkəsinə geri dönür. Bunun üzərinə atası Teoman da onun cəsarətini təqdir edərək onu orduda bir qrupun başına rəhbər göndərir. Mete əsgərlərini öyrətməyə başlayır və onlara "ovda və döyüşdə mən hara ox atsam, siz də oraya ox atacaqsınız. Mənim ox atdığım yerə ox asmasaz başını kəsərəm" deyə xəbərdarlıq edir. Ovda öz atına ox atır və atmayanların başını kəsər. Sonra bir ov zamanı atasının atına ox atır və əsgərləri də eynisini edərlər. Ən sonunda atası Teoman ilə çıxdığı bir ovda ona nişan alaraq ox atır və digərləri də eynisini edirlər. Beləcə, Teoman öldürülür. Ardından Teomanın yoldaşları və digər tərəfdarları öldürülür.


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